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CSE 672 Bayesian Vision
SUNY at Buffalo
Syllabus for Fall 2010
 Assignment 2 is assigned and due 27 Oct in class.
[Description]
 Assignment 1 is assigned and due 29 Sept in class.
[Description]
[Data]
 Example projects from the Fall 08 offering of this course are available in my CSE network folder. Also, I realized that my earlier stated statistic of the number of projects from the Fall 08 offering that eventually become published works was off by two. It was really 4 of 8 and not 2 of 8.
 We are able to switch the course to meet two days a weeks. Starting 9/6, we will meet just MW 12:30 in Bell 242. We will stay in Clemens 102 for Wednesdday 9/1 12 just in case someone does not get this. On Friday 9/3, we will meet in Bell 242 from 12.
 Please fill out the doodle scheduler to see if we can rearrange the class times to meet twice a week rather than thrice as the course material is better suited to fewer longer lectures...
 8/30  First day of class.
The calendar is given in weeks and will be populated as the semester proceeds based on the
course outline and our progress. There are no slides for this course (lectures are given on the board) and you should crossreference reading materials with the outline below and the bibliography I handed out with the syllabus.

August 30
 Introduction. Statistics of Natural Images.
 Sept. 6 (Monday Labor Day)
 Statistics of Natural Images.
 Sept. 13
 Descriptive Models 1: MRFs/Gibbs Fields.
 Sept. 20
 (No Class, out of town)
 Sept. 27
 Descriptive Models 2: Early MRFs and Applications of MRFs.
 Oct. 4
 Inference 1: Deterministic Methods
 Oct. 11
 Inference 2: Stochastic Methods
 Oct. 18
 Parameter Estimation in MRFs
 Oct. 25

 Nov. 1

 Nov. 8

(Nov. 10 CVPR Deadline)
 Nov. 15

 Nov. 22 Thanksgiving Week.
 (No Class, out of town, use it for projects developments)
 Nov. 29

 Dec. 6

Friday Dec. 10 is the last day of classes.
Course Overview:
The course takes an indepth look at various Bayesian methods in
computer and medical vision. Through the language of Bayesian
inference, the course will present a coherent view of the approaches
to various key problems such as detecting objects in images,
segmenting object boundaries, and recognizing objects. The course is
roughly partitioned into two parts: modeling and inference. In the
first half, it will cover both classical models such as weak membrane
models and Markov random fields as well as more recent models such as
conditional random fields, latent Dirichlet allocation, and topic
models. In the second half, it will focus on inference algorithms.
Methods include PDE boundary evolution algorithms such as region
competition, discrete optimization methods such as graphcuts and
graphshifts, and stochastic optimization methods such as datadriven
Markov chain Monte Carlo. An emphasis will be placed on both the
theoretical aspects of this field as well as the practical application
of the models and inference algorithms.
Course Project:
Each student will be required to implement a course project that is either a
direct implementation of a method discussed during the semester or new research
in Bayesian vision. A paper describing the project is required at the end of
the semester (68 pages two column IEEE format) and we will have an openhouse
poster session to present the projects. Working project demos are suggested
but not required for the poster session. This is a ``projects''
course. Your projects can satisfy a Masters requirement. In most cases, it
will involve at least some new/independent research. The last time this course
was offered, we had 2 of 8 projects submitted to main conferences (CVPR and
ICPR) with both being accepted.
Prerequisites:
It is assumed that the students have taken introductory courses in pattern
recognition (CSE 555), and computer vision (CSE 573). Machine learning (CSE
574) is suggested but not required. A strong understanding and ability to
work with probabilities, statistics, calculus and optimization is expected.
Permission of the instructor is required if these prerequisites have not been
met.
Course Goals:
After taking the course, the student should will a clear understanding of the
stateoftheart models and inference algorithms for solving vision problems
within a Bayesian methodology. Through completing the course project, the
student will also have a deep understanding of the lowlevel details of a
particular model/algorithm and application. The student will have completed
some independent research in Bayesian Vision by the end of the course.
Textbooks:
There is unfortunately no complete textbook for this course. The
required material will either be distributed by the instructor or
found on reserve at the UB Library. Recommended textbooks are
 Li, S. Markov Random Field Modeling in Image Analysis.
SpringerVerlag. 3rd Edition. 2009.
 Winkler, G. Image Analysis, Random Fields and Markov Chain Monte
Carlo Methods: A Mathematical Introduction. Springer. 2006.
 Chalmond, B. Modeling and Inverse Problems in Image Analysis.
Springer. 2003.
 Bishop, C. M. Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning.
Springer. 2007.
The course is roughly divided into two parts. In the first part, we discuss
various modeling and associated learning algorithms. In the second part, we
discuss the computing and inference algorithms which use the previously
discussed models to solve complex inference problems in vision. The topic
outline follows; citations are given and an underlined citation indicates a
primary (mustread) one. All or most papers are available in PDF at the course
directory (location above).
 Introduction.
 Discussion of Bayesian inference in the context of vision problems.
(Winkler, 2006, Chapter 1)
(Chalmond, 2003, Chapter 1)
(Hanson, 1993)
Probabilistic Inference Primer: (Griffiths and Yuille, 2006)
 Presentation of relevant empirical findings concerning the statistics
of images motivating the Bayesian approach.
(Field, 1994)
(Field, 1987)
(Julesz, 1981)
(Kersten, 1987)
(Ruderman, 1994)
(Simoncelli and Olshausen, 2001)
(Torralba and Oliva, 2003)
(Wu et al., 2007)
 Model classes: discriminative, generative and descriptive.
(Zhu, 2003)
 Modeling and Learning.
 Descriptive models on regular lattices.
 Markov random field models and Gibbs fields.
(Li, 2001, §1.2)
(Winkler, 2006, §2,3)
(Dubes and Jain, 1989)
 The HammersleyClifford theorem.
 Bayes MRF Estimators
(Winkler, 2006, §1.4)
(Li, 2001, §1.5)
(Geman and Geman, 1984)
 Examples:
 AutoModels
(Besag, 1974)
(Li, 2001, §1.3.1, 2.3, 2.4)
(Winkler, 2006, §15)
 Weak membrane models, MumfordShah, TV, etc.
 Applications:
 Image Restoration and Denoising
(Li, 2001, §2.2)
 Edge Detection and Line Processes
(Li, 2001, §2.3)
(Geman and Geman, 1984)
 Texture
(Li, 2001, §2.4)
(Winkler, 2006, §15,16)
 MRF Parameter Estimation
(Li, 2001, §6)
(Winkler, 2006, §5,6)
 MaximumLikelihood
 PseudoLikelihood
 Gibbs Sampler (and brief introduction to MCMC)
 Descriptive Models on Regular Lattices: Advanced Topics
 Discontinuities and Smoothness Priors
(Li, 2001, §4)
 FRAME and Minimax entropy learning of potential functionals.
(Zhu et al., 1998)
(Zhu et al., 1997)
(Coughlan and Yuille, 2003)
 Hidden Markov random fields.
(Zhang et al., 2001)
 Conditional random fields.
(Lafferty et al., 2001)
(Kumar and Hebert, 2003)
(Wallach, 2004)
(Ladicky et al., 2009)
 MRF as a foundation for multiresolution computing.
(Gidas, 1989)
 Higher Order Extensions
(Kohli et al., 2007) (Kohli et al., 2009)
 Descriptive and Generative Models on Irregular Graphs and Hierarchies.
 Markov random field hierarchies.
(Derin and Elliott, 1987)
(Krishnamachari and Chellappa, 1995)
(Chardin and Perez, 1999)
 OverComplete Bases and Sparse Coding
(Zhu, 2003, §6)
(Olshausen and Field, 1997)
(Coifman and Wickerhauser, 1992)
 Textons
(Julesz, 1981)
(Zhu et al., 2005)
(Malik et al., 1999)
 AndOr graphs and contextsensitive grammars.
(Zhu and Mumford, 2007)
(Han and Zhu, 2005)
 Dirichlet Processes (DP) and Bayesian Clustering
(Ferguson, 1973)
 Latent Dirichlet Allocation, hierarchical DP and authortopic models.
(Blei et al., 2003)
(Teh et al., 2005)
(Steyvers et al., 2004)
 Correspondence LDA (Blei and Jordan, 2003)
 Integrating Descriptive and Generative Models
(Guo et al., 2006)
 Inference Algorithms.
 Boundary methods.
 Level set evolution.
(Chan and Vese, 2001)
 Region competition algorithm.
(Zhu and Yuille, 1996a)
 Discrete Deterministic Inference.
 GraphCuts:
Expansion algorithm and mincut/maxflow relationship.
(Boykov et al., 2001)
(Kolmogorov and Zabih, 2002a)
 GraphShifts algorithm.
(Corso et al., 2007)
(Corso et al., 2008b)
 SumProduct algorithm (exact Belief Propagation).
(Bishop, 2006, §8)
(Yedidia et al., 2001)
(Frey and MacKay, 1997)
(Felzenszwalb and Huttenlocher, 2006)
 Generalized Belief Propagation.
(Yedidia et al., 2005)
(Yedidia et al., 2000)
 Inference on AndOr graphs.
(Zhu and Mumford, 2007)
(Han and Zhu, 2005)
 Stochastic Inference.
(Forsyth et al., 2001)
 Gibbs sampling.
(Geman and Geman, 1984)
(Winkler, 2006, §5,7)
 MetropolisHastings and Markov chain Monte Carlo methods.
(Winkler, 2006, §10)
(Tierney, 1994)
(Liu, 2002)
 DataDriven MarkovMCMC algorithm.
(Tu and Zhu, 2002)
(Tu et al., 2005)
(Green, 1995)
 SwendsenWang algorithm.
(Swendsen and Wang, 1987)
(Barbu and Zhu, 2005)
(Barbu and Zhu, 2004)
 Sequential MCMC and Particle Filters.
(Isard and Blake, 1998)
(Liu and Chen, 1998)
Homeworks:
There will be two homeworks, equally weighted. They will cover both
theoretical and practical (implementation) aspects of the material.
Students may collectively discuss the homework problems, but they must
write them independently. No sharing of written/typed materials of
any sort is allowed.
Programming Language:
Student choice for homeworks and project (generally, Python, Matlab, Java, or
C/C++). However, no platformspecific libraries/packages are permissible.
No sharing any of source code or written/typed materials is permitted.
No stealing of any source code or written/typed materials off of the
internet is permitted. No utilization of any thirdparty libraries,
other than those explicitly mentioned in the assignment description,
is permitted. Refer to the Academic Integrity statement at the end of
the syllabus for more information; a zero tolerance policy on
cheating will be adopted in this course. This means simply if you cheat once you will get an F.
Grading:
Letter grading distributed as follows:
 Discussion (20%)
 Homeworks (20%)
 Project (60%)
Project
The goal of the project is to have each student (or pair of students) solve a
real problem using the ideas learned herein. Below is a list of possible
projects, but the student is encouraged to design a project of their own in
conjunction with the professor. The ultimate goal is for each student to do
some new work. Within reason, camera and video equipment will be made
available to the students from the Vision Lab. Suitable arrangements should be
made with the instructor to facilitate equipment use.
List of Possible Projects
 Learning and sampling generic image priors such a line
processes (1).
 MRF Potential Learning by Minimax Entropy (1).
 Sampling Julesz ensemble of textures (1).
 Action Recognition with a generative model of dynamics (1).
 Inference by TreeReweighted Message Passing (1).
 Extensions to pictorial structures models for Object Detection (1).
 Learning and sampling a stochastic graph model (2).
 Learning and sampling the primal sketch from natural or medical
images (2).
Project Schedule
 9/27
 Project proposal due in class. 1page description of the
proposed project and the type of problem/data. It should include
three milestones in planning.
 10/18
 Milestone 1 Report due in class. (1paragraph)
 11/10
 Milestone 2 Report due in class. (1paragraph) Note, 11/10 is the CVPR paper deadline.
 12/10
 Final milestone and public poster / demo session (classtime).
 12/13 23:59
 Project writeup and source code are due.
Project WriteUp
The writeup will be in standard twocolumn IEEE journal format at a maximum of
10 pages. It should be approached as a standard paper containing
introduction and related work, methodology, results, and discussion.
Similar Courses at This and Other Institutions:
(incomplete and in no important order)
Most items below have been cited above, but there are also some
additional references that extend the content of the course. When
available, PDFs of articles have been uploaded to the UBLearns
``Course Documents'' section. The naming convention is the first two
characters of (up to) the first three authors following by an acronym
for the venue (e.g., CVPR for Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition)
followed by the year. So, the Geman and Geman 1984 PAMI article is
GeGePAMI1984.pdf.

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 Generalizing SwendsenWang to Sampling Arbitrary Posterior
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