Introduction to Cognitive Science


Last Update: 5 April 2011

Note: NEW or UPDATED material is highlighted


  1. Johnson-Laird's Theory of Mental Models

  2. Tversky & Kahnemann's Theory of Judgment under Uncertainty:

    1. Tversky, Amos; & Kahneman, Daniel (1971), "Belief in the Law of Small Numbers", Psychological Bulletin 76(2): 105-110.

    2. Kahneman, Daniel; & Tversky, Amos (1973), "On the Psychology of Prediction", Psychological Review 80(4) (July): 237-251.

    3. Tversky, Amos; & Kahneman, Daniel (1974), "Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases", Science 185(4157) (September 27): 1124-1131.

    4. Tversky, Amos; & Kahneman, Daniel (1983), "Extensional Versus Intuitive Reasoning: The Conjunction Fallacy in Probability Judgment", Psychological Review 90(4) (October): 293-315.

    5. Erwin Segal's webpage on Reasoning and Problem Solving

    6. Kahneman, Daniel (2002), "Maps of Bounded Rationality: A Perspective on Intuitive Judgment and Choice" (Nobel Prize Lecture).

    7. For an interesting application, see:

      1. Goldstein, Evan R. (2008), "The New Paternalism", Chronicle of Higher Education (9 May): B8-B11.

        • "An economist and a legal scholar argue that policy makers should nudge people into making good decisions"

      2. Cassidy, Jack (2008), "Economics: Which Way for Obama?", New York Review of Books 55(10) (June 12): 30,32,34.

  3. On the proper role of psychological studies of human reasoning in the creation of formal models of reasoning:

    1. Pelletier, Francis Jeffry & Elio, Renée (1997), "What Should Default Reasoning Be, by Default?", Computational Intelligence 13(2): 165-187.

    2. Evans, Jonathan St.B.T. (2003), "In Two Minds: Dual-Process Accounts of Reasoning", Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7(10): 454-459.

  4. Logic & Reasoning in the Cognitive-Science Disciplines of Logic, AI, and Philosophy:

    1. Logic & Automated Theorem Proving

    2. Belief Revision and Default, Defeasible, and Non-Monotonic Reasoning

  5. On Herbert Simon's theories of bounded rationality and satisficing:

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