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Last Update: 19 October 2006

Note: NEW or UPDATED material is highlighted

  1. Minsky, Marvin (1974), "A Framework for Representing Knowledge", Memo 306 (Cambridge, MA: MIT AI Lab).

  2. Kuipers, Benjamin J. (1975), "A Frame for Frames: Representing Knowledge for Recognition," in D.G. Bobrow & A. Collins (eds.), Representation and Understanding: Studies in Cognitive Science (Orlando, FL: Academic Press): 151-184.

  3. Papers on KRL:

    1. Bobrow, Daniel G. & Winograd, Terry (1977), "An Overview of KRL, a Knowledge Representation Language", Cognitive Science 1(1): 3-46.

    2. Bobrow, Daniel G.; Winograd, Terry; & The KRL Research Group (1977), "Experience with KRL-0: One Cycle of a Knowledge Representation Language", Proceedings of the 5th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI-77, MIT) (Los Altos, CA: Morgan Kaufmann): 213-222.

    3. Bobrow, Daniel G., & Winograd, Terry (1979), "KRL: Another Perspective", Cognitive Science 3(1): 29-42.

  4. Hayes, Pat (1979), "The Logic of Frames", [PDF] in D. Metzing (ed.), Frame Conceptions and Text Understanding (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter): 46-61.

  5. NEW link:
    Brachman, Ronald J.; Fikes, Richard E.; & Levesque, Hector J. (1983), "KRYPTON: A Functional Approach to Knowledge Representation", IEEE Computer 16(10): 67-73.

  6. Fikes, Richard, & Kehler, Tom (1985), "The Role of Frame-Based Representation in Reasoning", Communications of the ACM 28(9): 904-920.

  7. A good survey of schema theory, the general notion of which "frames" (and Schank's "scripts") are special cases, is:

  8. Some References on the Procedural-Declarative Controversy

  9. Example of an object-oriented frame

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