Last Update: 13 April 2004

Note: NEW or UPDATED material is highlighted

  1. Thorndike, Edward L. (1917), "Reading as Reasoning: A Study of Mistakes in Paragraph Reading", The Journal of Educational Psychology 8(6): 323-332.

  2. Either:


  3. Granger, Richard H. (1977), "Foul-Up: a Program that Figures Out Meanings of Words from Context", Proceedings of the 5th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI-77, MIT) (Los Altos, CA: William Kaufmann): 67-68.

  4. Carbonell, Jaime G. (1979), "Towards a Self-Extending Parser", Proceedings of the 17th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (University of California at San Diego) (Morristown, NJ: Association for Computational Linguistics): 3-7.

  5. Either:


  6. van Daalen-Kapteijns, M.M., & Elshout-Mohr, M. (1981), "The Acquisition of Word Meanings as a Cognitive Learning Process", Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 20: 386-399.

  7. Beck, Isabel L.; McKeown, Margaret G.; & McCaslin, Ellen S. (1983), "Vocabulary Development: All Contexts Are Not Created Equal", Elementary School Journal 83(3): 177-181.

  8. Jenkins, Joseph R., & Dixon, Robert (1983), "Vocabulary Learning", Contemporary Educational Psychology 8: 237-260.

  9. Either:



  10. Nagy, William E., & Anderson, Richard C. (1984), "How Many Words Are There in Printed School English?", Reading Research Quarterly 19(3, Spring): 304-330.

  11. McKeown, Margaret G. (1985), "The Acquisition of Word Meaning from Context by Children of High and Low Ability", Reading Research Quarterly 20(4): 482-496.

  12. Nagy, William E.; Herman, Patricia A.; & Anderson, Richard C. (1985), "Learning Words from Context", Reading Research Quarterly 20(2): 233-253.

  13. Schatz, Elinore Kress, & Baldwin, R. Scott (1986), "Context Clues Are Unreliable Predictors of Word Meanings", Reading Research Quarterly 21(4, Fall): 439-453.

  14. Johnson-Laird, Philip N. (1987), "The Mental Representation of the Meanings of Words", Cognition 25(1-2): 189-211

  15. Zernik, Uri, & Dyer, Michael G. (1987), "The Self-Extending Phrasal Lexicon," Computational Linguistics 13: 308-327.

  16. Berwick, Robert C. (1989), "Learning Word Meanings from Examples" [PDF], in David L. Waltz (ed.), Semantic Structures: Advances in Natural Language Processing (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates): 89-124.

  17. Either:


  18. Kibby, Michael W. (1995), "The Organization and Teaching of Things and the Words that Signify Them", Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy 39(3): 208-223.

  19. Fukkink, R.G., & de Glopper, K. (1998), "Effects of Instruction in Deriving Word Meaning from Context: A Meta-Analysis", Review of Educational Research 68: 450-458.

  20. Kuhn, Melanie R., & Stahl, Steven A. (1998), "Teaching Children to Learn Word Meanings from Context: A Synthesis and Some Questions", Journal of Literacy Research 30(1): 119-138.

  21. Swanborn, M.S.L., & de Glopper, K. (1999), "Incidental Word Learning while Reading: A Meta-Analysis", Review of Educational Research 69: 261-285.

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