The goal of work in artificial intelligence is to build machines
that perform tasks normally requiring human
(Nilsson, Nils J. (1971),
Problem-Solving Methods in Artificial Intelligence
(New York: McGraw-Hill): vii.)
Research scientists in Artificial Intelligence try to get
machines to exhibit behavior that we call intelligent behavior
when we observe it in human beings.
(Slagle, James R.
Artificial Intelligence: The Heuristic Programming Approach
(New York: McGraw-Hill): 1.)
B. Raphael ...
has suggested that AI is a collective name for
problems which we do not yet know how to solve properly by
"Formation and Execution of Plans by
Machine," in N. V. Findler & B. Meltzer (eds.) (1971),
Artificial Intelligence and Heuristic Programming
(New York: American Elsevier): 101-124; quotation on
[Note that it follows that once
we do know how to solve them, they are no longer AI!]
What is or should be [AI researchers'] main scientific
activity--studying the structure of information and the structure of
problem solving processes independently of applications and
independently of its realization in animals or humans.
(1974), Review of "Artificial Intelligence: A
5: 317-322; quotation on p. 317.)
By "artificial intelligence" I therefore mean the use of
computer programs and programming techniques to cast light on the
principles of intelligence in general and human thought in
(Boden, Margaret (1977),
Artificial Intelligence and Natural Man
(New York: Basic Books): 5.)
Some links have been :
A valuable discussion of the nature of AI may be found in
the "debate" between
Schank, Roger C.
"The Current State of AI: One Man's Opinion",
No. 1 (Winter-Spring): 3-8,
"The Nature of AI: A Reply to Schank",
No. 4 (Winter): 29-31.
See also: Nilsson,
Nils J. (1983),
"Artificial Intelligence Prepares for 2001",
Parnas, David Lorge
(1985), "Software Aspects of Strategic
73: 432-440, esp.
pp. 437-438: "Artificial Intelligence and the Strategic Defense
From: wm@tekchips.UUCP (Wm Leler)
Subject: Re: definition of AI
Date: 3 Dec 85 23:35:21 GMT
Organization: Tektronix, Beaverton OR
Here's another "off-the-cuff" definition of AI, but one which I
think captures the essence of what separates AI CS from regular CS.
Artificial Intelligence is the branch of Computer Science that
attempts to solve problems for which there is no known
efficient solution, but which we know are efficiently solvable,
(typically) because some intelligence can solve the problem
(often in "real time").
A side benefit of AI is that it helps us learn how intelligences
solve these problems, and thus how natural intelligence works.
Example: vision. We do not have any algorithms for recognizing,
say, animal faces in images, but we know it must be possible,
because humans (even infants) can effectively recognize faces.
Solving this problem would help us understand how human vision
(1988) analysis of what AI is.
A newsgroup discussion on
Aaron Sloman's (1989)
analysis of what AI is.
Article 13305 of comp.ai:
Subject: Re: Cyc
Date: 4 Aug 92 13:31:03 GMT
Organization: Carnegie Mellon University School of Computer Science
In article <1992Aug3.email@example.com>, firstname.lastname@example.org (Randy Crawford) wrote:
}I like the quote I heard recently (questioningly attributed to McCarthy),
}"AI is everything we can't do with today's computers."
Another one I like is
"AI is making computers act like those in movies."
Internet: RALF+@CS.CMU.EDU |The University would disclaim this if it knew...
FIDO: Ralf Brown 1:129/26.1 |"Wisdom is the quality that keeps you from
BIT: RALF%CS.CMU.EDU@CARNEGIE| getting into situations where you need it."
AT&Tnet: (412)268-3053 school| -- Doug Larson
A discussion among
Stuart C. Shapiro,
Sargur N. Srihari,
Bharat Jayraman on
what AI is.
Article: 22490 of comp.ai
From: rkeene@pixelplow.Central.Sun.COM (Dick Keene [Sun Market Development Software Engineer])
Subject: Re: Definition of AI (was Re: Gell-Mann's "FLA
Date: 9 Jun 1994 16:35:49 GMT
Organization: Sun Microsystems, Inc.
Warning: Cynical Definition...
My definition of AI is any algorithm that is new in computer
science. Once the algorithm becomes accepted then it's
not AI, it's just a boring algorithm.
At one time windows, mouse, menus, scroolbars etc. were considered
an AI technique for makeing computers understand natural language.
(The menus are a list of valid words the system understands)
This is also why I study "Cognition", not AI.
Artificial intelligence is concerned with the attempt to develop
computer programs that will be capable of performing difficult cognitive
Michael W. (1990), "Artificial Intelligence," in M.W.
Eysenck (ed.), The Blackwell Dictionary of Cognitive Psychology
(Oxford: Basil Blackwell): 22.)