Last Update: 7 December 2009

Note: NEW or UPDATED material is highlighted


  1. There are two versions of SNePS: The current implementation is SNePS-2.7, which is the latest in a series beginning with SNePS-2.0.
    A completely new implementation, with a very different representational scheme, is SNePS-3.
  2. There are also two interface languages:
    1. SNePSUL (the SNePS User Language), with a semantic-network-oriented, Lisp-like syntax
    2. SNePSLOG, with a predicate-logic-like syntax.
  3. Most of the readings below discuss various implementations of SNePS-2.x and SNePSUL.
  4. To go to the SNePS homepage, click on "SNePS" in the title above.
  5. To go to the complete SNePS bibliography, click on "READINGS" in the title above.

If you are new to SNePS, I would suggest beginning with:

  1. Shapiro, Stuart C.; & Bona, Jonathan P. (in press), "The GLAIR Cognitive Architecture", in Alexei Samsonovich (ed.), Biologically Inspired Cognitive Architectures: Papers from the AAAI Fall Symposium, Technical Report FS-09-01 (Menlo Park, CA: AAAI Press).

  2. Shapiro, Stuart C. (2000), "SNePS: A Logic for Natural Language Understanding and Commonsense Reasoning", in Lucja M. Iwanska & Stuart C. Shapiro (eds.), Natural Language Processing and Knowledge Representation: Language for Knowledge and Knowledge for Language (Menlo Park, CA/Cambridge, MA: AAAI Press/MIT Press): 175-195.

  3. Martins, João P. (2002), Section on SNePS from draft of unpublished knowledge representation text

  4. Shapiro, Stuart C. and Rapaport, William J. (1995), "An Introduction to a Computational Reader of Narrative", in Judith Felson Duchan, Gail A. Bruder, & Lynne E. Hewitt (eds.), Deixis in Narrative: A Cognitive Science Perspective (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates): 79-105.

For an introduction to SNePSLOG, look at:

To get started using SNePSUL and SNePS-2.7, use:

For examples of uses of SNePS-2.x, read:

  1. UPDATED (broken link fixed)
    Shapiro, Stuart C. (1989), "The CASSIE Projects: An Approach to Natural Language Competence", in João P. Martins & Ernesto M. Morgado (eds.), EPIA 89: 4th Portugese Conference on Artificial Intelligence Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence 390 (Berlin: Springer-Verlag): 362-380.

  2. Shapiro, Stuart C. (1991), "Case Studies of SNePS", Special Issue on Implemented Knowledge Representation and Reasoning Systems, SIGART Bulletin 2.3 (June): 128-134.

For a broad overview of the goals and design of SNePS-2 as a knowledge-representation and reasoning system, read:

  1. Shapiro, Stuart C., & Rapaport, William J. (1987), "SNePS Considered as a Fully Intensional Propositional Semantic Network", in Nick Cercone & Gordon McCalla (eds.), The Knowledge Frontier: Essays in the Representation of Knowledge (New York: Springer-Verlag): 262-315.

  2. Shapiro, Stuart C. and Rapaport, William J. (1992), "The SNePS Family", Computers & Mathematics with Applications 23: 243-275; reprinted in Fritz Lehmann (ed.), Semantic Networks in Artificial Intelligence (Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1992): 243-275.

For an introduction to SNeRE, the SNePS Rational Engine (the acting model) read:

Of practical interest:

  1. Shapiro, Stuart C. & the SNePS Implementation Group (2007), "SNePS 2.7 User's Manual" [PDF].

  2. Shapiro, Stuart C.; Rapaport, William J.; Cho, Sung-Hye; Choi, Joongmin; Feit, Elissa; Haller, Susan; Kankiewicz, Jason; & Kumar, Deepak (1996), "A Dictionary of SNePS Case Frames".

Of historical interest:

  1. Shapiro, Stuart C. (1971), "A Net Structure for Semantic Information Storage, Deduction, and Retrieval", Proceedings of the 2nd International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (Los Altos, CA: Morgan Kaufmann): 512–523.

  2. Shapiro, Stuart C. (1979), "The SNePS Semantic Network Processing System", in Nicholas V. Findler (ed.), Associative Networks: The Representation and Use of Knowledge by Computers (New York: Academic Press): 179-203.

Of current and future interest:

  1. Shapiro, Stuart C. (2000), "An Introduction to SNePS 3", in Bernhard Ganter & Guy W. Mineau (eds.), Conceptual Structures: Logical, Linguistic, and Computational Issues, Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence 1867 (Berlin: Springer-Verlag): 510-524.

  2. The SNePS-3 webpage.

Copyright © 2001–2009 by William J. Rapaport (